The collective bargaining process always includes face-to-face sessions, conducted in a fairly formal way. Notes are taken, for example, so the parties will have a record of what was said if a dispute later comes up over what did or didn’t happen during the talks. Depending on the type of union and the type and size of the bargaining unit, negotiations for the union will be handled either by a single spokesman or by individual bargaining teams, with each addressing a specific area of concern. The bargainers present proposals and the facts, figures and arguments that justify them. Since the other side has proposals of its own, the sessions also include asking questions about what they’re proposing and why, and debating the facts and arguments.
—Adapted from The Union Member's Complete Guide, by Michael Mauer